Servers can be hardware or software that put to use network services that respond to queries. Oftentimes these name servers translate identifiers in human languages to a language that is meaningful to the computers. Typically this is a numerically based identifier. A Domain Name System (DNS server) is one typical kind of name server component. This is one of the two most common and basic namespaces used for the Internet.
Function of a Domain Name System
These servers serve many functions but perhaps the most important use is to translate human significant domain names and host names. These are typically series of words and phrases in a text-based language. These servers translate them into the machine meaningful number Internet Protocol address. The IP addresses are the other common and basic namespaces of the internet.
IPs are not physical addresses but the addresses of computers, computer systems, and resources on the Internet. They can be conceptualized the same way you think about physical addresses though.
Authoritative Name Servers
To handle the demands of translating Internet Protocols, domain name systems assign IP addresses to authoritative name servers that control all of the IPs in a certain field. Typically, when a domain name is registered, it is assigned to an authoritative name server. Usually, it is then assigned to a second authoritative name server because redundancy makes systems more reliable. The name server then assigns the domain name to subdomains.
Caching Name Servers
Caching name servers are the servers that store query results from the Domain Name System. These queries are typically stored for a period of time determined by the set-up of each domain name. These caching name servers improve the performance of the domain name system because they cut down on the amount of DNS traffic by calling up past queries from the caching name servers instead of the domain name system. This reduces the amount of stress placed on authoritative name servers. Also, this speeds up the performance and efficiency at the users’ end.
Internet service providers (ISPs) usually include some kind of caching resolver to provide the caching servers’ responses to the end user. Also, many routers will also include caching resolvers. That way, the local network is improved by quick responses from the resolvers.
Windows Domain Name System
This is a major system in server software created by Microsoft. This software system can be used with authoritative name servers, recursive servers, or configured into a hybrid mode. Active Directory is integrated with the software, so it is the default software for those systems. It is shipped with a command line user interface, but also ships with a proprietary graphic user interface. The newest versions of the software have greatly improved user interfaces and PowerShell, as well as improved support for each.
Bind is the standard server because it is free. It is common with the majority of Linux or UNIX platforms. It is the most common server. The server has gone through three architecture overhauls. The first two versions have now become completely obsolete.